By Dudley Cartwright,
CEO of Soterion
When looking at all the components (activities) that make up a Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) solution, the majority are backend type activities performed by GRC or SAP security administrators.
However, there are some GRC activities that have a huge touch point with business users i.e. they are the primary users of that functionality, namely:
- SAP access risk simulations (approval / rejection done by line managers)
- User Access Review
Organisations have been asking their business users to review SAP access change requests for quite some time now. However, even with regulations such as SOX / JSOX being in existence for almost 20 years, the requirement to perform a User Access Review is a more recent requirement for many organisations.
Why is it becoming so important?
The primary driver behind a User Access Review is usually for audit reasons. Many audit regulations such a Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) Act and JSOX require listed organisations to perform a User Access Review on a periodic basis, usually annually.
Before we go any further, let’s remind ourselves of the purposes of the User Access Review:
During the course of a specific year, SAP access change requests will be simulated using an access control solution. Line Managers / Business users will be required to review these proposed changes, with approved requests being applied in SAP.
The function of the is to review whether that SAP access is still valid at a later point in time. For example, if a person requests access to Create Purchase Orders (ME21N), if approved, the appropriate role will be assigned to the user. If this assignment was done on 1 January 2020, who is to say that the access is still relevant for that user on 1 Jan 2021.
The User Access Review therefore provides the organisation with an opportunity to re-look at the user’saccess to confirm whether it is still relevant and applicable (as the user may have moved to a different job functions, or their role may have changed since the role assignment was done). One of the great advantages of a User Access Review is that is limits SAP authorisation creep.
The downside for many organisations is that a User Access Review is done merely to appease audit, and the value of the activity is questionable, especially when you consider the amount of effort required by the business users to carry out a User Access Review.
There is a need to shift the mindset of the business users from it being an audit tick box exercise to a valuable activity in remediating access risk. The reasons for doing this should not be to appease audit, but rather as a valuable access risk management activity.
However, to support this shift in thinking, organisations need to consider several process changes to support the business. It is important for organisations to understand the challenges facing the business users who perform the SAP User Access Review. If the business users find the User Access Review process onerous and/or challenging, they will push back on the process and treat it as a tick-box exercise. The result: The organisation will extract minimal value for the User Access Review.
How do You Facilitate This Shift in Thinking?
Besides garnering senior management support for the User Access Review, it is critical that a number of technical aspects are considered to make the process easier and simpler for the business users. Here are a few considerations:
Does the organisation’s SAP role design make it difficult for the business users to know what access users have i.e. are SAP roles non-descriptive? Are SAP roles large and contain many transaction codes?
To make the User Access Review process as simple as possible for the business users, ensure that the SAP role design lends itself to making the process easy. Functional role designs typically have more descriptive role names, making it easier for business users to understand what is contained in the SAP roles being reviewed. This will allow the business users to make more informed decisions as to whether the access is appropriate or not for the user.
Updating the role design to be descriptive may in fact require a complete role redesign. As organisation’s move to S4HANA, this could be a great opportunity to re-look at the organisation’s security framework and consider a role redesign that is more business friendly and made simpler, thereby reducing the effort required in a User Access Review.
2. Role Methodology
Unfortunately debating SAP role methodologies is like debating religion and politics. People become familiar with a role methodology and do not fully appreciate any other methodology. Most SAP security administrators understand a derived role methodology and have a limited understanding of a task and value (functional / enabler) role methodology.
A task and value role methodology is where you split your transactional access from your Organisational level access. This results in far fewer roles needing to be created – which also means users are assigned fewer roles. Choosing a role methodology that has fewer role assignments will reduce the effort required by the business users to carry out a User Access Review.
3. Rule Set Customisation and Business Education of Access Risk
Business users performing a User Access Review are likely to pay more attention to those SAP roles assigned to their users that contribute to access risk violations. If the organisation has performed a rule set customisation project, they are likely to have defined a more appropriate and refined rule set.
The access risk rule set project serves as a great tool for educating the business users on the access risks applicable to their area. By having a better understanding of each of the access risks in the rule set, the business users can make more informed decisions during the User Access Review as to whether and risk bearing access for a particular user is acceptable or not.
4. Use a Tool to Facilitate the User Access Review Process.
Performing a User Access Review in a spreadsheet often proves challenging. Although the reviewer can see the roles assigned to the users, spreadsheets often do not include usage and risk information. This results in roles being removed from a user that contain transaction codes that are being used by that user i.e. he / she requires that access to carry out their job function. This causes business disruption, and most of the removed access gets assigned back to these users immediately after the User Access Review.
By using a commercial solution for the User Access Review, the business users can make more informed decisions due to having User-Transaction usage and access risk information.
A huge benefit of using a tool at facilitate the User Access Review is that it can be configured to speed up the process. As an example, a User Access Review can be created to only include roles that contribute to access risk, thus reducing the number of role assignments that need to be reviewed. Another example is to create a User Access Review that flags roles previously ‘approved’ so that the focus can be on new assignments since the last review.To get the reviewers to perform a User Access Review well, it is important for the solution to convert the technical SAP role language into a language the business users can understand.
5. Split Reviews
If you make use of SAP Composite or Business Roles, consider splitting the review into a User Access Review and a Role Content Review.
– Role Content Review: A role owner reviews the content of the SAP Composite or Business Role.
– User Access Review: A line manager reviews the role assignments at the SAP Composite or Business Role level. They do not review the underlying SAP single roles – but simply whether the Composite or Business Role is appropriate for the user.
6. Iterative Reviews
Instead of having one large annual User Access Review, where all users access is reviewed, see whether it is possible to split this into smaller iterative reviews in the year. This can be split by:
– Geography: User Access Review done by region.
– Risk Level: User Access Review done by risk level.
– SAP module: Users Access Review done by SAP module.
It is important to keep in mind the challenge of certification fatigue. This is where the reviewers complain about the time and effort required to carry out a User Access Review.
How can Soterion Help You?
Soterion is the market leader in business-centric GRC. By converting the technical GRC language into a language the business users can understand, we facilitate business buy-in and accountability.
Soterion’s Periodic Review Manager allows the review to be done at the business process level, making it easier and quicker for the business users to carry out their access risk management activities. This allows the business to make more informed decisions and reduces the time it takes to complete the User Access Review, saving the organisation time and money.
Feel free to email us on [email protected]. Let us help you take your GRC to the next level.
Related Tag: Sap Access Controls